FALL PLANT LIST, 2019
Achillea millefolium YARROW is a vigorous and easy to grow perennial, native throughout California in many diverse plant communities. Flower stems grow 12-18 inches above the gray, ferny, foliage bearing white flowers in flat topped clusters. Blooms April to August. Plant in a sunny location with moderate to a little water. Spreads by rhizomes and can form sizable clumps. Flowers provide nectar for native and honey bees, and butterflies. The foliage provides winter forage for birds. Deer resistant. Native Americans had many uses for the plant, including pain relief, fever reduction, and solution for blood issues of all kinds.
Aquilegia eximia SUMMER OR VAN HOUTTE'S COLUMBINE is a striking, long-lived perennial found on moist banks in riparian habitats and often found on serpentine seeps. It has attractive sprays of leaves similar to a maidenhair fern and branching stalks of red and yellow flowers that bloom spring through fall. Grows to 5 ft. Attracts hummingbirds and butterflies. Used medicinally by Indians and usually not browsed by deer.
Asclepias fascicularis NARROW LEAF MILKWEED or MEXICAN WHORLED MILKWEED is a flowering perennial sending up many thin, erect stems and bearing distinctive long pointed leaves which are very narrow and often whorled about the stem, giving the plant its common names. It blooms in clusters of lavender or lavender-tinted white flowers which have five reflexed lobes that extend down away from the blossom. It's very easy to grow in soils with good drainage, even with little or no summer water and blooms June through September. Milkweeds in general are the larval host plants for Monarch butterflies. This plant should be planted for its ecological benefit, not for its appearance.
Asclepias speciosa SHOWY MILKWEED is a hardy, erect perennial about 4 ft. tall with pale pink to pinkish-purple large clusters of fragrant flowers in late spring to summer. Will grow in clay soils but prefers well drained soils. It spreads by underground rhizomes and can form huge clumps. As with other milkweeds, alkaloids inside the plant are ingested by the caterpillars feeding on them resulting in predator aversion due to taste. Very attractive to butterflies, especially Monarchs, as well as hummingbirds and native and honey bees. It had many Native American medicinal uses.
Diplacus aurantiacus (Mimulus aurantiacus) STICKY MONKEYFLOWER is a hardy, shrubby, perennial found in dry hills in the Coast Ranges. Blooms mid-spring into summer with yellow to orange-lipped flowers. About 3-5 ft. tall. Grows in full sun to light shade, and is drought tolerant. Will accept garden water and bloom longer. Accepts serpentine soils. Attracts hummingbirds, bees and butterflies. Larval food source for the common checkerspot and buckeye butterflies. Deer resistant. Fire resistant.
Dudleya cymosa CANYON DUDLEYA is a succulent plant found on rocky cliffs in Lake County. It blends in with the rock walls until in bloom. Showy upright spikes of yellow-red flowers in the spring. Leaves are in a grey green basal rosette. Blooms spring to summer with a pleasant fragrance. Good for rock gardens. Takes sun to light shade. Does not appreciate summer water once established. Attracts hummingbirds. Deer resistant.
Epilobium spp. (Zauschineria spp.) CALIFORNIA FUCHSIA Tough, spreading, perennial forming a mat of foliage with late summer to fall orange-red to scarlet flowers. Likes full sun and is very drought tolerant. Foliage and forms of Epilobiums range from narrow and green to powdery grey and triangular, and in height from 6 inches to 3-4 ft. The flowers are trumpet shaped and appear on stalks reaching up to 18 inches high. Flowers best with occasional deep watering. Pruning plants down to a few inches in late autumn helps to rejuvenate them for the following year. Beautiful against a rock wall, in dry stream beds, or naturalistic plantings where they have some room to spread. Serpentine tolerant. Hummingbird favorite. Was used medicinally by Indians.
E. canum ‘Brilliant Smith’ Low spreading variety with very wide, triangular green leaves and very big, red flowers.
E. canum ‘Uvas Canyon’ Selection with pale green leaves and extremely hardy. Lives on my property with no applied water for 29 years.
E. septentrionale ‘Select Mattole’ An especially attractive form with low mounding, wide, sliver leaves and bright red flowers.
E. septentrionale ‘Wayne's Silver’ similar to Select Mattole, very low and spreading, can take some shade in hot areas.
Eriogonum nudum NAKED BUCKWHEAT This widely distributed species is known for its elegant flower displays on naked stems rising 1 to 3 ft. above low mounds of grey-green leaves. Naked buckwheat has flower pom-poms ranging in color from white to pink set on slender stems in open clusters up to 12 inches wide. Blooms from late spring into early autumn. Requires full sun to very light shade in soil with decent drainage. Drought tolerant once established. Looks best clustered. Few natives are as excellent a source of nectar for bees and many species of butterflies as the buckwheats. Generally deer resistant.
Erythranthe cardinalis (Mimulus cardInalis) SCARLET MONKEYFLOWER Native to wet areas throughout the West, this robust perennial can easily grow to 2 ft. tall and wide. Tubular scarlet flowers are large. Plant in sun to part shade with ample water. Perfect beside a pond, stream or water feature. Trim as needed to keep tidy. Did well in a large container with yarrow, and epilobium. Attracts hummingbirds.
Erythranthe lewisii x (Mimulus lewisii) LEWIS MONKEYFLOWER is an herbaceous attractive perennial which bears coral-pink flowers and toothed, downy leaves. Plant in sun to part shade with ample water. Blooms spring into fall. Will spread with constant moisture. Serpentine tolerant. A favorite of hummingbirds, it also attracts butterflies. Deer resistant.
Erythranthe guttatus (Mimulus guttatus) COMMON YELLOW MONKEYFLOWER Native to wet places throughout the west. Forms mats of foliage topped with flowering stems of bright yellow tubular flowers. Needs regular water, sun to light shade. Will reseed. Will adapt to a wide variety of soils but needs moisture and good drainage. Bee and hummingbird pollinated. Deer tolerant.
Iris douglasiana DOUGLAS IRIS Native to the California coast, with clumps of evergreen, sword-shaped leaves that can spread and form mats and have beautiful purple flowers in the spring. An adaptable garden subject for cool full sun to light shade and can be spread by division. Drought tolerant once established, but occasional summer water in inland areas will help. It is an important nectar producer for native bees. Deer resistant.
Iris fernaldii FERNALDS IRIS is found in Northern California in the coast ranges around the San Francisco Bay Area. Its leaves are gray-green with pink, red, or purple coloring along their edges and bases. The flowers usually grow paired on a stem and are grey-veined. This form is pale yellow. About 1 ft. tall. Prefers part shade.Deer resistant.
Iris macrosiphon GROUND IRIS is found in grassy areas to woodlands. May be seen in full sun to full shade in a variety of colors, generally lavender to deep purple. Generally found in clumps about a foot high and several feet wide with blooms at ground level. Prefers damp loamy soil with plenty of organic matter. Very drought tolerant and cold tolerant. Deer resistant. Seeds are eaten by birds.
Lupinus albifrons SILVER LEAF LUPINE Striking perennial found in rocky and disturbed sites or clay slopes. Silver white silky leaf and a flower stalk with lavender-violet flowers. Will reach about 5 ft. tall under the right conditions, generally about 3 ft. Prefers full sun good drainage. Drought tolerant. Avoid watering in summer. Attractive to bees and butterflies. Seeds are eaten by quail. Lupines are avoided by deer.
Lupinus sericatus COBB MOUNTAIN LUPINE is a rare species from Sonoma, Lake and Napa Counties, that forms a low, wide mound of broad, silver-green leaves with thick, 12 inch spikes of mauve-pink to violet flowers in spring. Found on open wooded slopes on volcanic well-drained sandy soil, mostly on east or north exposure and usually in partial shade. Tolerates a variety of soils as long as adequate drainage is provided Do not water much once established. Lupine flowers attract bees, butterflies, other beneficial insects and hummingbirds. Deer resistant.
Monardella villosa COYOTE MINT is a perennial herb with a delightful fragrance that grows to about 2 ft. tall and 3 ft. wide. The pink to lavender rounded flowers are quite pretty and bloom in the spring to summer. It accepts a variety of soils, including serpentine and does well in containers. Attracts birds, butterflies, bees and hummingbirds. Was used by Native Americans as a remedy for upset stomach, respiratory conditions, and sore throat. It may be steeped into a mint tea.
Penstemon centranthifolius SCARLET BUGLER is a tall, striking plant found in chaparral or oak woodland. Leaves are somewhat basal with 3-5 ft. flower stalks and bright tubular red flowers that bloom late spring into summer. Likes full sun and good drainage. Drought resistant. A favorite of hummingbirds and butterflies. Deer resistant.
Salvia sonomensis SONOMA CREEPING SAGE (from Mt Konocti slopes) Evergreen perennial groundcover found in full sun on rocky slopes to partial shade under pines. Leaves silvery grey, fragrant, flower spikes are soft purple and bicolor blue. Blooms April through May and is extremely drought, heat and cold tolerant. It will take garden water with good drainage. Serpentine tolerant. Excellent for erosion control. Helps suppress weeds and grass. Fire resistant. Attracts butterflies, birds (including hummingbirds) and bees. Seeds eaten by birds.
Sedum spathulifolium YELLOW STONECROP Native, low-growing, perennial herb found hanging on rocky outcrops mostly in shaded or northern exposures. The leaves are thick and succulent. In spring the plant puts up an erect flower stalk with diminutive, bright yellow flowers. Blooms spring to summer. This succulent works well in rock gardens. Will accept spring and winter water but no summer water. Attracts butterflies. Deer resistant. SPRING Silene laciniata var californica CALIFORNIA INDIAN PINK Attractive low perennial with bright red flowers Does well sun to part shade and seen on banks and roadsides. Can also be grown in a hanging pot and is a hummingbird favorite.
Sisyrinchium bellum BLUE-EYED GRASS Perennial herb, 1 ft. tall, with bright-blue daisy-like flowers in late winter to spring. After flowering it dies back and is dormant over summer. Prefers some moisture and good drainage but will tolerate summer dryness. Tolerant of sand and clay. Can be propagated by seed, self-seeds. Also propagated by division of rhizomes and the flower stems can be rooted. Moderately hardy. Attracts butterflies. Deer resistant.
Sisyrinchium californicum YELLOW-EYED GRASS Native to coastal areas where this perennial thrives in wet areas. Leaves are pale green and the flowers are bright yellow. Grows 6-12 inches tall. Plant in sunny areas with regular water. Seeds readily.
Stachys albens COBWEBBY HEDGE NETTLE. Interesting perennial found in wet, swampy to seepy places in the following plant communities:Foothill oak woodland, Coastal sage scrub, Yellow pine forest, Red fir forest, Lodgepole pine forest, California mixed evergreen forest, Wetland-riparian, Pinyon-juniper woodland It is known for a very fuzzy, cobwebby white to pink flower with purple veins. Leaves and entire plant are very hairy.A great pollinator plant visited by hummingbirds, bees and butterflies
DORMANT Taraxia ovata SUNCUPS Perennial that often grows in open, grassy, sunny areas on clay soil with big fleshy taproot. Very low growing in moist areas, with large four-petaled bright yellow flowers from February to April.
DORMANT Triteleia laxa (previously Brodiaea laxa) ITHURIELS SPEAR It bears a tall, naked stem topped with a spray of smaller stalks, each ending in a purple or blue flower. The flower is tubular, opening into a sharply six-pointed star. Thrives in heavy soil, sun or shade and needs no summer water.
DORMANT Wyethia glabra SMOOTH LEAF MULE EARS Spring perennial that is limited to California, and grows from a thick taproot. Blooms March through May and is found in meadows and oak woodland. Light green leaf up to 16 inches and large yellow flowers at base of plant resembling sunflowers. Increases yearly and also self-seeds. Attracts butterflies.
DORMANT Chlorogalum pomeridianum WAVY LEAF SOAP PLANT or AMOLE, has long, wavy-margined low leaves that form a rosette in winter followed in late spring by tall, airy flower stems bearing small white flowers that open in the late afternoon and evening from March to August. Pollination is by evening- or night-flying insects. Great in naturalistic settings in full sun to light shade from grassland, chaparral and woodlands. Serpentine tolerant. Needs to go summer dry once established. Larval food source for the Western Brown Elfin butterfly. Known for their large fibrous bulbs historically used by Indians and early settlers for soap, food and to stupefy fish. The rough fibers surrounding the bulb were used for scrubbing.
DORMANT Cynoglossum grande WESTERN HOUNDS TONGUE A common perennial found early spring in Pine and Oak woodlands. Leaves are low and basal, resembling a dog's tongue and flowers are bright blue, lavender and white on about a 2-3 ft. stalk in loose clusters. Prefers a deep, fertile, well-drained but moisture-retentive soil. Dies back each year but reemerges in the late winter to spring. Long lived. A great accent plant under the dry shade of deciduous oaks. Flowers attract hummingbirds, butterflies and bees. A nectar source and larval host for the Hound’s Tongue Wooly Bear moth. Deer resistant. Native Americans cooked the root to relieve stomach upset.
DORMANT Delphinium nudicaule RED LARKSPUR is a perennial herb that blooms March through June with up to 4 ft. tall spikes of trumpet-shaped, brilliant red flowers. Leaves are silvery green. Will reseed. Found along stream banks, north and east slopes or near seasonal springs. Prefers moist clay or heavy soil, can be found on talus slopes. Attractive to hummingbirds and bees.
DORMANT Dicentra formosa WESTERN BLEEDING HEART is a ferny perennial found by moist stream beds and also dry mixed forests. It has dangling pink heart-shaped flowers and blooms mid-spring to summer. About 1-2 ft. tall, it increases by underground runners and is a good shady ground cover. Self-seeds. A tough and adaptable plant, it will accept water throughout the year. Will accept more sun in the garden with increased watering. Deer resistant and attracts butterflies.
DORMANT Primula hendersonii (Dodecatheon hendersonii) SHOOTING STAR occurs in the western regions of North America in open woodlands. Summer deciduous dying back after rains cease. Basal clumps of leaves give rise to flower stalks, 4-12 inches tall, with nodding, magenta, lavender and white flowers. Needs good drainage and summer drought. Self-seeds. Plants may take 3-5 years to flower from seed. Bumble bees are the primary pollinator.
Calycanthus occidentalis WESTERN SPICE BUSH Fragrant, erect, shrub found in stream courses in shady canyons usually with north and east exposure. Leaves are large and aromatic and flowers are deep maroon and scented, blooming spring to summer. .It is fast growing and will usually grow about 10 ft. tall and wide. Takes filtered sun to shade and is cold hardy. Relatively pest resistant, generally not browsed by deer. Seeds are eaten by birds. Attracts butterflies.
Cercis occidentalis WESTERN REDBUD Lake County's most ornamental native is a striking deciduous shrub or small tree found in open sunny slopes below 1,800 feet. This plant is covered with magenta flowers in early spring; leaves follow flowers. Foliage in the fall ranges from yellow into red, very striking. Very drought tolerant once established and accepts light shade to sun. Very hard to start from seed. Tough and adaptable, this is a long-lived, drought tolerant plant. Deer resistant. Indians used the bark for baskets. SPRING
Heteromeles arbutifolia TOYON is a decorative large, evergreen shrub found in manzanita-oak woodlands around Lake County. It has large clusters of white flowers in June, and bright red berries all fall to winter. Grows 6-10 ft. and has large glossy green-toothed leaves. The flowers have a mild, hawthorn-like scent. Toyon is easy to grow and can reach 10 ft. in three years. It likes sun or part shade and can handle a wide variety of soils, including clay, sand and serpentine, but needs more moisture than most chaparral shrubs. They do well near seasonal creeks, seeps, bottom of slopes, or near irrigated areas. Tolerates a fair amount of summer water, up to 1x per week if the drainage is good. The large and dense growth habit provide cover for many small birds. Those birds also provide food for many bird hunters like Cooper’s Hawk, Sharp-shinned Hawk, and American Kestrel. Mammals including coyotes and bears also eat and disperse the berries. Toyon can be planted near houses since they are fire resistant when given enough moisture. Good as a hedge. The flowers are visited by butterflies, bees and other insects. The berries are an important fall to winter food source for birds, including mockingbirds, American Robins, and Cedar Waxwings
Lonicera involucrata var. ledebourii TWINBERRY is a honeysuckle, a long-lived deciduous shrub which grows up to 10 ft. tall. Leaves are bright green, elliptical, and paired opposite each other on the stem. Flowering occurs in June-July. Small, tubular yellow flowers grow in pairs surrounded by two leafy bracts. The fruit is a small black berry containing several seeds; it is edible but bitter and best left to the birds. Likes moist places and some shade. In the garden this plant likes regular water but can survive on reduced watering. Tolerates cold. The flowers are welcome in summer when many other plants have finished blooming. Hummingbirds and bees are attracted to the flowers. Other birds are attracted to the fruits.
Rosa californica CALIFORNIA WILD ROSE is a beautiful native rose species that is a much-branched shrub 3-9 ft. tall, occurring along stream beds and moist places along roads from sea level to 4,000 feet. Blooms from March to July with rose colored fragrant flowers that may grow singly or in flower clusters of several blooms. Found in light shade to full sun, it needs moisture. It tolerates clay but does best in moist loamy soil. Cold tolerant. Good for hedges, Deer resistant. Provides rose hips to birds and mammals.
Symphoricarpos albus var. laevigatus SNOWBERRY Deciduous native shrub for shady areas. Beautiful plant with lovely white berries in autumn and a great plant for wildlife gardens. Clusters of tiny, pinkish, urn-shaped flowers are followed by showy white berries on the branch tips. Easy to grow in landscaping applications, and tolerates many different soil types and sun conditions. Grows 4-6 ft. tall and 8-10 ft. wide. Prefers relatively moist soils. Attracts many birds including hummingbirds, butterflies and many other pollinators.
Vitus California California grape
Arbutus menziesii MADRONE Beautiful native evergreen tree but tricky to establish. Main feature is the handsome smooth reddish bark that peels in thin flakes. Leaves are leathery and shiny dark green. Large clusters of white flowers give way to red-orange berries that can remain into winter if the birds don't get them. MUST have good drainage and just enough water to establish. Once established give only infrequent deep watering or no water at all. Grows 25 ft. in drier areas and in the northern, moister part of its range, it can grow quickly to 100 ft. Plant in a shady or partially shaded location, and avoid direct summer water. It prefers north facing slopes especially in drier locations. Serpentine tolerant.
Pinus ponderosa PONDEROSA PINE is a very large pine tree species of variable habitat native to the western U.S. and Canada. It is the most widely distributed pine species in North America. The bark helps to distinguish it from other species with yellow to orange-red bark in broad to very broad plates with black crevices. Younger trees have blackish-brown bark, referred to as "blackjacks" by early loggers.
Grows to 40 - 225 ft. and is relatively fast growing. Prefers sandy or loamy soils. Does not grow well in clay soils. Attracts beneficial butterflies, including the West Pine Elphin (Callophrys eryphon) and Pine White (Neophasia menapia) species. Attracts many birds, including Red-winged blackbirds, chickadees, mourning doves, finches, evening grosbeak, jays, Clark's nutcracker, nuthatches, rufous-sided towhee, turkeys, and grouse. Pinus ponderosa needles are the only known food of the caterpillars of the gelechiid moth Chionodes retiniella.
Pseudotsuga menziesii DOUGLAS FIR is an evergreen conifer species in the pine family, Pinaceae. Grows to 300 ft. Cones up to 4 inches long hang from the branches. Bark variable, gray to black or red-brown, generally with longitudinal fissures, scaly, sometimes flaking.
Quercus douglasii BLUE OAK is a deciduous oak found on sunny well-drained hillsides and is endemic to California. The bark is light gray with many medium-sized dark cracks. From a distance the bark can appear almost white. This oak can be identified by its small blue-green leaf. They prefer full sun but will tolerate part shade, especially when young. They can handle occasional summer water (1x per month). Grows to 20-60 ft.
Quercus kelloggii BLACK OAK Deciduous oak with spectacular autumn color and large lobed and pointed leaves. Grows to 20-120 ft. Occurs in many soil types. Prefers acidic soil and tolerates serpentine. Acorns are relatively large in this species. The Black Oak’s acorns were considered the best for food by the Native Americans due to their large size. Deer resistant.
Quercus lobata VALLEY OAK is the most adaptable, fastest growing deciduous oak. Found usually on flood plains at low altitudes, and requires rich, deep well-drained soil. Grows to 40-125 ft. tall.
Leaves are lobed and turn golden in the fall.
Quercus wislizeni INTERIOR LIVE OAK
DORMANT Aesculus californica CALIFORNIA BUCKEYE is a broad crowned, deciduous tree found on hillsides and often associated with intermittent stream courses. It typically is multi-trunked with a crown as broad as it is high. The leaves are dark green with five (rarely seven) leaflets This tree grows rapidly, with large fragrant spikes of white flowers in the spring followed by brown shiny buckeye balls in the fall. Tolerates a variety of soils including clay and serpentine. Hummingbirds and insects including several butterfly species are attracted to the flowers.
CALIFORNIA NATIVES FROM OTHER PARTS OF THE STATE THAT SHOULD DO WELL HERE.
Romneya counterii MATILIJA POPPY Romneya coulteri, the Coulter's Matilija poppy or California tree poppy, is a perennial species of flowering plant in the poppy family. Native to southern California and Baja California, it grows in dry canyons in chaparral and coastal sage scrub plant communities, sometimes in areas recently burned It is a popular ornamental plant, kept for its large, showy flowers. May exceed 2 m (7 ft) in height, its woody stem growing from a network of rhizomes with gray-green, waxy-textured leaves While beautiful, this plant often grows aggressively once planted. It spread clonally by underground rhizomes and can pop up several feet away from the original plant. This plant bears the largest flowers of any species native to California It is summer deciduous and winter dormant, so patience is required to get it established. Once established, it spreads aggressively and may need to be controlled to prevent undesired expansion. Pulling shoots is usually effective. Deer resistant. Attracts bees and butterflies
Salvia spathacea HUMMINGBIRD SAGE
Native perennial with fragrant foliage spreads by creeping rhizomes to form handsome mats. Flower stems rise 2 - 3 ft. above the leaves carrying many large ball-like clusters of magenta flowers spring to summer Does best with some shade or filtered sun.. Drought tolerant, but looks best with occasional summer water, though regular watering will kill it after established . A hummingbird favorite. Also attracts bees and butterflies Deer resistant.
Malva assurgentflora MALVA ROSA Lavatera assurgentiflora is a species of flowering plant in the mallow family. It is endemic to California, where it is native to the Channel Islands. It is grown as an ornamental plant and windbreak. This is a sprawling perennial herb or bushy shrub generally exceeding a meter tall and approaching four meters in maximum height. The leaves are up to 15 centimeters long and wide and are divided into 5 to 7 toothed lobes. The showy flowers have five dark-veined deep pink petals which are somewhat rectangular in shape and 2.5 to 4.5 centimeters long. This plant prefers full sun and well draining soils. It can handle a moderate amount of summer irrigation, up to every other week, as long as it's well drained. Can handle a wide variety of soil types, including clay and sand. Tolerates Serpentine Soil Attracts hummingbirds and many species of butterflies